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Soil Mechanics - Consolidation

Source: http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/167_SR/chap_31/images/44_f01.gif


Consolidation is a form of settlement where the air and liquids in a soil (the voids) are removed due to pressures acting on the soil. Consolidation can occur over a long period of time and can destroy structures if not address soon enough.

The distance of consolidation is determined using this equation:

 s = H \varepsilon_v = \dfrac{H \Delta e}{1  + e_0}

Where:

s = settlement

H = layer thickness

e_0 = initial void ratio

\Delta e = change of the void ratio due to the increase in vertical stress at the midpoint of the layer

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